Periprostatic Adipose Tissue Mapping as a Diagnostic Predictor of Prostate Carcinoma
Author(s): Shrestha Sukriti, Zhao Xinxiang
Periprostatic adipose tissue is a new topic being investigated to determine its utility in detecting and scoring prostate cancer. In the past, most of the studies related to prostate cancer relied on body mass index (BMI) to measure adiposity but showed conflicting results. In recently published clinical trials, periprostatic adipose tissue has been considered as a risk factor for the development of prostate cancer. These studies shifted the focus of researchers from BMI to periprostatic adipose tissue quantification demonstrating its relation with prostate cancer. Similarly, the study of paracrine effects of organ- associated adipose tissue and its association with cancer has also been the major focus for researchers lately. Adipokines have been linked with numerous carcinogenic mechanisms, such as angiogenesis, cell proliferation, metastasis, and alterations in sex-steroid hormone levels. This article basically reviews the clinical studies which used different imaging modalities to quantify periprostatic adipose tissue and its association with prostate cancer. Also, it further explores the specific roles of several adipokines like leptin, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and their mechanism in progression of prostate cancer.