Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy: Case of Mezam Division, NWR Cameroon
Author(s): Nkem Ernest Njukang, Thomas Obinchemti EGBE, Martin Sama, Tah Aldof Yoah, Joseph Kamgno
Background: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are a global public health concern both in developed and developing countries. Evidence regarding the risk factors of HDP are limited in Cameroon. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of HDP in Mezam Division.
Methods: A cross sectional study conducted between April-July, 2018 in Mezam Division. Consecutive sampling was used to recruit 1210 pregnant women. Descriptive statistics, chi-square (χ2) test and multivariate logistic regression were used for analysis.
Results: The prevalence of HDP was 14.5%; of which 3.4% chronic HTN (CH), 31.8% gestational HTN (GH), 48.3% preeclampsia (PE), 5.7% PE superimpose on CH and 10.8% severe PE. Risk factors of CH were: Family history HTN [Adjusted Odd Ratio (AOR), 95%Confidence Interval (CI): 3.70 (1.7-11.6)], stress [2.80 (1.1-10.9)] and overweight/obese [2.6 (1.3-6.7)]. For GH, Single/separated [2.7 (1.5-4.7)], family history [4.4 (1.5-13.1)], alcohol [2.8 (1.1-5.4)] and previous history of HDP [4.9 (1.5-10.2)] were significant. For PE, overweight/obese [2.7 (1.4-7.1)], previous history of HDP [3.5 (1.6-7.1)], smoking [5.1 (1.3-9.3)], mode of delivery (CS) [3.2 (1.4-6.3)], age at first pregnancy (≥35 years) [7.4 (1.9-28.4)], blood group (AB) [3.3 (1.3-5.9)], gestational age (> 40 weeks) [3.1 (1.3-5.9)] and birth spacing (> 108 months) [4.8 (1.3-61.1)] were significant.
Conclusion: There is a significant burden of HDP (14.5%). PE and GH represented the highest followed by severe PE. A number of independent risk factors were identified and will help in screening women at higher risk of HDP.