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Twelve-Month outcomes of a Cluster-Randomized Trial of Home-Based Postpartum Contraceptive Delivery in Southwest Trifinio, Guatemala

Author(s): Margo S Harrison, Saskia Bunge-Montes, Claudia Rivera, Andrea Jimenez-Zambrano, Gretchen Heinrichs, Antonio Bolanos, Edwin Asturias, Stephen Berman, Jeanelle Sheeder

Design: We executed a cluster-randomized parallel arm pragmatic trial to observe the association of home-based postpartum contraceptive provision, including the contraceptive implant, with three and 12-month contraceptive utilization, satisfaction, and pregnancy rates.

Methods: Eight clusters were randomized to receive either the home-based contraceptive delivery (condoms, pills, injection, implant) during the routine 40-day postpartum visit in addition to routine care, or routine care alone, which included comprehensive contraceptive counseling throughout antepartum care.

Results: 208 women were enrolled in the study, 108 in the intervention clusters and 100 in control clusters. 94 (87.0%) women in the intervention group and 91 (91%) of women in control clusters were evaluated 12 months post-enrollment. Likelihood of using contraception at that time was borderline increased in intervention clusters (RR 1.1 [1.0,1.3], p = 0.05) with an increased likelihood of long-acting contraceptive use (the implant; RR 1.6 [1.3,1.9], p < 0.001). Pregnancy rates were also borderline reduced in the intervention clusters (RR 1.0 [1.0,1.1], p = 0.07). There was no difference in satisfaction of women with contraceptive use between arms with about 95% of women very satisfied or a little satisfied in each arm. Continuation rates at twelve months of contraceptives in the intervention group were 0.0% for condom users, 80.0% for contraceptive pill users, 57% for injectable users, and 83% for implant users. Most women who discontinued their initial method chose a more long-term or permanent method. There was a trend toward a significant association with reduced short interval pregnancy.

Conclusion: Our study had a borderline increase in overall use of contraception by 12 months, did have an increased likelihood of long-acting contraceptive use of the implant by 12 months, and resulted in a trend toward reduced short interval pregnancy in the intervention clusters as compared to control clusters.

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